Important orchestras in New York were led by Fletcher Henderson, Paul Whiteman and Duke Ellington. What instruments are used in a jazz band and why? Its most infamous bootlegger of hard liquor and beer was Al Capone, leader of the crime syndicate known as the Outfit. The American Music Instrument Company of Michigan introduced the first “coin-op” electronic record machine, with ten 78 records and 20 song selections, in 1927. During the Jazz Age, it became very common for those who could afford it to have pianos and sheet music in their own houses. The new cultural phenomenon of listening to jazz on high-fidelity 78 rpm records on a nickel-per-play machine became a fast hit in speakeasies. Many New Orleans jazzmen had moved to Chicago during the late 1910s in search of employment; among others, the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band and Jelly Roll Morton recorded in the city. The marquee nightclubs serving liquor in New York and Chicago – known to police but frequently tolerated thanks to payoffs from club owners – became larger, noisier and more opulent as they competed for paying customers. Some of the tunes listed were already well-known standards by the 1930s, while others were popularized later. From New Orleans, where Armstrong and Oliver originated, came a style in which musicians performed together as an ensemble. In fact, F. Scott Fitzgerald himself was no stranger to this sort of lifestyle. In Chicago, a free-form, improvisational style arose. (1929). The 1920s were an essential period for jazz music, because it was a time for experimenting and inventing. Some of the tunes listed were already well-known standards by the 1930s, while others were popularized later. Two of the best-known nightclubs of the era were Madden’s Cotton Club and Connie’s Inn, owned by Conrad Immerman, both in New York’s predominantly black Harlem district (Connie’s Inn closed its doors with the repeal of Prohibition in 1933). [4], Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 201, Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 140. Jazz became known for including a lot of improvisation, because the original jazz musicians could not read music. This competitive club culture had mobsters such as Al and Ralph Capone of Chicago and Owney Madden of New York vying for the best performers for their drink-swilling customers. The time of the most influential recordings of a song, where appropriate, is indicated on the list. Change ). Web. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. But coin-operated phonographs (known a decade later as “jukeboxes”) would take over with the introduction of 78 rpm records made with amplified electronic sound in 1926. Jazz originated in New Orleans around 1895. Prohibition forced tens of thousands of saloons throughout the country to shut down, but the demand for drink remained, and thousands of illegal bars, or speakeasies, soon opened. [6] Several songs written by Broadway composers in the 1920s have become standards, such as George and Ira Gershwin's "The Man I Love" (1924), Irving Berlin's "Blue Skies" (1927) and Cole Porter's "What Is This Thing Called Love?" This quote from, http://library.thinkquest.org/C005846/categories/artliter/artslit.htm>, http://www.ovtg.de/3_arbeit/englisch/gatsby/jazz_age.html>, http://reading.cornell.edu/reading_project_06/gatsby/jazz_age.htm>, http://www.trailend.org/dow-jazzage.htm>. Next Story: Flappers and Gangsters Ruled the Silver Screen, The Mob Museum, located in downtown Las Vegas │ themobmuseum.org │ 702.229.2734 │ info@themobmuseum.org, The decade that F. Scott Fitzgerald, author of the 1925 novel, Rumrunners Delivered the Good Stuff to America’s Speakeasies, During Prohibition, Mob Bosses Tripped Up By Tax Laws, Prohibition Agents Lacked Training, Numbers to Battle Bootleggers, Key Court Rulings Enhanced Prohibition Enforcement, Women’s Rights Advanced During Prohibition, Flappers and Gangsters Ruled the Silver Screen, Prohibition Sparked a Women’s Fashion Revolution, Dating Replaced Courtship During Prohibition, Mixed Drinks Made Rotgut Liquor Palatable, Brewers and Distillers Found Creative Ways to Survive, Gold Diggers, Snuggle Pups and the Bee’s Knees, In Las Vegas, Prohibition Was Sporadically Enforced. However, it was not until the 1930s that musicians became comfortable with the harmonic and melodic sophistication of Broadway tunes and started including them regularly in their repertoire. The time of the most influential recordings of a song, where appropriate, is indicated on the list. However, this did not stop jazz from becoming immensely popular within the younger generation. ( Log Out /  By midnight the hilarity had increased. It also would lead to millions in profits for organized crime bosses. Women, given the right to vote by the 19th Amendment, were welcomed in the new underground lounges. Web. A period known as the "Jazz Age" started in the United States in the 1920s. It is no surprise that Gatsby, as wealthy as he was, followed this trend as well. Other technological advances would spur the growth of jazz during Prohibition. It came first from the African American community and was a form of blues. By the mid-1920s, jazz was being played in dance halls and roadhouses and speakeasies all over the country. Jazz had become popular music in the country, although older generations considered the music immoral and threatening to old cultural values. The club served white audiences and dignitaries such as Chicago Mayor Jim “Big Bill” Thompson. Some of their jazz records openly referred to illegal booze. One of Smith’s songs, called “Me and My Gin,” included the refrain, “Any bootlegger sure is a pal of mine.” Armstrong recorded a popular song about drinking titled “Knockin’ a Jug.”. The devotion to jazz shown by the Capone brothers and other business-minded mobsters during Prohibition would benefit black jazz greats Armstrong, Ellington, Waller, Earl “Fatha” Hines and Ethel Waters, and with them, the future of jazz as an enduring genre of American music. Bar owners soon were hiring small jazz bands with local players to furnish background or dance music. Jazz standards are musical compositions that are widely known, performed and recorded by jazz artists as part of the genre's musical repertoire. This list includes compositions written in the 1920s that are considered standards by at least one major book publication or reference work. [3] Dances such as the Charleston and the Black Bottom were very popular during the period, and jazz bands typically consisted of seven to twelve musicians. Soon, white Americans began to pick it up too, and the mix of European and African styles formed a new genre of jazz that was wholly American. ( Log Out /  The decade that F. Scott Fitzgerald, author of the 1925 novel The Great Gatsby, hailed as “the Jazz Age” began when jazz was already the pop music of its time, especially among members of the younger generation in the 1920s. As Armstrong, Oliver, Ellington and many top black jazz musicians attained national fame in the 1920s, they felt pressure from Mob-owned clubs. “Jazz Age.” Das Otto-von-Taube-Gymnasium in Gauting. In Chicago, a free-form, improvisational style arose. These songs, some of them even mentioned in The Great Gatsby, define and represent jazz music in the 1920’s. The 1920s were an essential period for jazz music, because it was a time for experimenting and inventing. Through careful listening and analysis, they allow us to look more deeply at the novel. This list includes compositions written in the 1920s that are considered standards by at least one major book publication or reference work. .

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