As of the year 2009–2010, Himachal Pradesh joined the category of high female participation, recording a 46% share of NREGS (National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme) work days to women.

Kalpa, a typical town in Himachal Pradesh. Established in 1851, the Shimla Municipal Corporation is an elected body comprising 27 councillors, three of whom are nominated by the government of Himachal Pradesh. However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846,[15] during the First Anglo-Sikh War.

Kangra, Palampur, Solan, and Dharmshala are other notable towns in the state. The nearby temple of Tara Devi is a place for performing rituals and festivals.

[15] Several hill states acknowledged Mughal suzerainty and paid regular tribute to the Mughals.[16]. [89], In the census, the state is placed 21st on the population chart, followed by Tripura at 22nd place. [67] Manimahesh Lake situated in the Bharmour region of Chamba district is the venue of an annual Hindu pilgrimage trek held in the month of August which attracts lakhs of devotees. A fire cleared much of the area where the native Indian population lived (the "Upper Bazaar" nowadays known as the Ridge[18]), and the planning of the eastern end to become the centre of the European town forced them to live in the Middle and Lower Bazaars on the lower terraces descending the steep slopes from the Ridge. [92], The life expectancy at birth in Himachal Pradesh increased significantly from 52.6 years in the period from 1970 to 1975 (above the national average of 49.7 years) to 72.0 years for the period 2011–15 (above the national average of 68.3 years). Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra.

[28] There are many schools from the British era. [[NH-5]|National Highway 5]] (formerly NH 22) connects Shimla to the nearest big city of Chandigarh. After independence, the city became the capital of Punjab and was later made the capital of Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh, state of India, in the extreme northern part of the Asian subcontinent.

The Kali Bari temple, dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali is near the mall. The other arts and crafts of Shimla include a huge collection of beaded and metal jewellery. Shimla is full of pine and deodar trees. [24] Following area of Punjab State namely Shimla, Kangra, Kulu and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Nalagarh tehsil of Ambala District, Lohara, Amb and Una kanungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una tehsil of Hoshiarpur District besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Tehsil of Pathankot district; were merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 November 1966 on the enactment of Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 by the Parliament. Field of corn (maize) in the mountainous Chamba region, Himachal Pradesh, India.

The climate varies from hot and subhumid tropical in the southern tracts to, with more elevation, cold, alpine, and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges. The green belt in the Shimla planning area is spread over 414 hectares (1,020 acres). [15] Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the beginning of the 11th century. The only broad gauge railway line in the whole state connects Una Himachal railway station to Nagal Dam in Punjab and runs all the way to Daulatpur, Himachal Pradesh. The Himachal Pradesh University (state university of Himachal Pradesh) is also located in Shimla.

Along with schools of higher education, several institutes are also present, namely Himachal Pradesh University and Indian Institute of Advanced Study. Since 2015, 95.0 BIG FM[59] and Himachal Tourism have been jointly organising a seven-day long winter carnival on the Ridge from Christmas to New Year's.[60][61][62]. After the winter season, the hillsides and orchards bloom with wild flowers, while gladiolas, carnations, marigolds,[27] roses, chrysanthemums, tulips and lilies are carefully cultivated. Shimla leads the list of Indian cities with the highest-ranked hotels.[44]. With remarkable economic and social advancements, the state has changed rapidly. [58] The apple cultivation constitute 49 per cent of the total area under fruit crops and 85% of total fruit production in the state with an estimated economy of ₹3500 crore. Himachal Pradesh produces a significant portion of India’s hydroelectric power. [49] Law and order in the city is collectively maintained by the Police Force, Vigilance Department, enforcement directorate, forensics, fire brigade, prisons service and Home Guard. [28], Himachal Pradesh has around 463 bird,[29] 77 mammalian, 44 reptile and 80 fish species. [32] Environmental degradation due to the increasing number of tourists every year without the infrastructure to support them has resulted in Shimla losing its popular appeal as an ecotourism spot., Official Site of the Government of Himachal Pradesh, India, - Himachal Pradesh Map, India, India Video - Himachal Pradesh, a land of its own, The Official Site of the District of Chamba, Himachal Pradesh - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up).

Hill stations like Shimla, Manali, Dharamshala, Dalhousie, Chamba, Khajjiar, Kullu and Kasauli are popular destinations for both domestic and foreign tourists. [48], The city contributes one seat to the state assembly (Vidhan Sabha) and one seat to the lower house of parliament (Lok Sabha). There are many new startups in and around Shimla. Biological Conservation, 93 (3): 371-379. [76] It is an electrified track since 1999.


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