; a courtier of Herod the Great, he met Augustus and won his friendship. “faultily faultless” Tennyson, Alfred Lord Maul 2 6. November 28, 2004. www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2099-1362193,00.htm. “as though they were tipping over” Ibid., 4128. “better qualified to be a gladiator” Vell Pat 2913. D23. “Your soldiers have no claim” Plut Ant 55 2. “preserve a significant distinction” Dio 56 33 3. Imperium originally meant absolute or kingly power—the word being derived from the Latin verb imperare (to command)—which became somewhat limited under the republic by the collegiality of the republican magistrates and the right of appeal, or provocatio, on the part of citizens. Fuller’s classic study, The Decisive Battles of the Western World. A sharp-eyed great-grandson This was Gaius, nicknamed Caligula, Drusus’ youngest son, and later emperor (A.D. 37–41). Daily Life in Ancient Rome (Oxford, Eng. A promagistrate, or a man executing a curule office without actually holding that office, also possessed imperium in the same degree as the actual incumbents (i.e., proconsular imperium being more or less equal to consular imperium, propraetorian imperium to … The pope again excommunicated the "self-confessed heretic", the "blasphemous beast of the Apocalypse" (20 March 1239) who now attempted to conquer the rest of Italy (i.e. “Gaius Caesar is a young man” Cic Phil, 323. The most popular attraction This section is indebted to Carcopino, Grant Glad, and Meijer. presumably with proconsular authority There has been much scholarly debate about the nature of Octavian’s powers. Lollius had been taking bribes Vell Pat 2 102 1, Pliny 958. “Whoever makes his journey” Quoted, from an unidentified play, by App 285. To correct this problem, he was granted a general and overriding proconsular authority (imperium maius,“greater power”), the right to intervene anywhere in the empire as and when he chose. Augustus’ signet ring These were routine actions when a Roman died: see Smith, see under funus. “guard our young swarm” Hor Odes 13529–32. “I am surprised” Plut Apo reg et imp 207D. Cassius Dio, a leading politician who lived between about A.D. 150 and 235, was the author of a history of Rome in eighty books; only twenty-six survive, but fortunately these cover the period from 68 B.C. Plutarch’s life of Antony describes the encounter at Misenum in some detail. It would make more sense if he was at Labici than en route to Italy (otherwise, why would he have asked leave to go to his journey’s obvious destination?). Divination and Portents in the Roman World (Odense, Denmark: Odense University Press, 2000), Williams, Craig A. Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity (London: Oxford University Press, 1999). This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. “He is very much a boy” Cic Att 420 (16 11). Plutarch’s life of Mark Antony is important, especially his famous account of Antony and Cleopatra’s meeting at Tarsus. “in recognition of my valour” Res Gest 34. His objectivity was affected by a strong animus against the imperial system. Maybe, but it must often have happened in real life. The Making of the Roman Army from Republic to Empire (reprint, London: Routledge, 1998), Levick, Barbara. “in military and Roman fashion” Dio 48 30 1. “aggravated her illness deliberately” App 559. It is worth noting that in later life, Octavius lived abstemiously, a habit that may well have been developed in his youth. major eruption R. Stothers, 2002: “Cloudy and Clear Stratospheres Before A.D. 1000 Inferred from Written Sources,” J. Geophysical Research, Vol. The Cambridge Illustrated History: Roman World (Cambridge, Eng. The eldest, Germanicus For this account of Germanicus, see Suet Gaius 31–1. “We two once beat a swift retreat” Hor Odes 27. “from the fatigue and anxiety” Dio 53 25 7. Imperium is indicated in two prominent ways. knew that the assassination Plut Ant 13 1. Antony issued a coin See Grant, Cleo, p. 169. for one year. Livia was an able businesswoman For Livia’s business interests, see Barrett, chapter 9. “to seek to keep the constitution” Macr 2418. optimates I use the English form, for the Latin word can only be used in the plural. The number of lictors in attendance upon a magistrate was an overt indication of the degree of imperium. Armenia was turned into a Roman province Within a couple of years the political situation went into reverse, and both Armenia and Media returned to the Parthian fold. “indiscreet talk when drunk” Ovid Trist 2446. “Cleopatra and Antony now dissolved” Plut Ant 71 3. “Since fate has cruelly carried off” Suet Tib 23. he adopted his wife For a full discussion of Livia’s adoption, see Barrett, Chapter 8 passim. Examples of Augustus' virtual presence in the provinces? “entirely clearing pirates” Plut Pomp 26 4. Many governors had friendly connections See Levick, pp. Dio gives two separate dates when Octavian was given full tribunician power or potestas, 30 and 23; he may not have accepted the offer on the first occasion, or perhaps only certain powers. “Fate shall allow the earth” Virg Aen 6 869–70, 882–86. See La villa di Livia a Prima Porta (Rome, 1984), published by Messineo with coauthor Carmelo Calci in the series Lavori e studi di archeologia, pubblicati dalla soprintendenza archeologica di Roma. Doctors and Diseases in the Roman Empire (London: British Museum Press, 2000), Keppie, Lawrence. and the first century A.D. “lying dead upon a golden couch” Ibid., 85 3–4. “returned looking more like porters” App 4 112. lodged his will with the Vestal Virgins Some argue (for example, Grant Cleo, p. 193) that Antony would not be so stupid as to do this and that the document was a forgery. 79) was an industrious writer, whose Natural History was an attempt to sum up all human knowledge. Nevertheless the broad outline of the battle is clear enough. Octavian wrote his autobiography, now lost, in 25 B.C. Copy to clipboard He came from Pontus and traveled widely. The right to command the force of the state, sovereignty. During the ritual Suetonius says only “the nearby temple”; the main temple built and dedicated by Agrippa was the Pantheon, to which the historian was very probably referring. For the last part of Augustus’ life, we depend on Dio (despite lacunae), on the overenthusiastic Velleius, and on Suetonius’ lives of Augustus and Tiberius. That of Augustus is no exception. Plutarch’s and Suetonius’ lives of Caesar throw light on Caesar’s activities, as do Appian and the commentaries on the Alexandrian war and the African war, written by Caesarian supporters. The Triumvirate’s second term There is some dispute about the timing of triumviral terms. I follow Michael Grant’s opinion that “uxor mea est” is the question “Is she my wife?,” not the statement “She is my wife.” See Grant Cleo, pp. From the first century B.C. Whenever a society accepts this Divine will to be expressed on earth, as by a religious authority, this can lead to theocratic legitimation. Octavian and Agrippa used architecture as a means of managing public opinion and asserting their political vision. 1 of the abridged edition (1970), pp. The discussion of Sextus Pompeius is indebted to Sextus Pompeius, Anton Powell and Kathryn Welch, eds. In his official memoir For these expenses see Res Gest 16. seems the most likely date. Hector is speaking to Paris. Thenceforth the "Donatio" acquires more importance and is more frequently used as evidence in the ecclesiastical and political conflicts between the papacy and the secular power: Anselm of Lucca and Cardinal Deusdedit inserted it in their collections of canons; Gratian excluded it from his Decretum, but it was soon added to it as Palea; the ecclesiastical writers in defence of the papacy during the conflicts of the early part of the 12th century quoted it as authoritative. : Oxford University Press, 1996), Grant, Michael. Suetonius seems usually reliable or at least plausible, for he had access to the imperial archives and quoted from documents, as well as to contemporary (but now lost) memoirs. Statues 4. : Oxford University Press, 1998) is a readable introduction to daily life in ancient Greece and Rome by Peter Connolly and Hazel Dodge, notable for the elegant illustrations that evoke the two cities as they were in their heydays. Individuals given such power were referred to as curule magistrates or promagistrates. Maius imperium ("greater power") 2. “since he was notoriously rough-tongued” Ibid., 34. “give judgement on the Capitol” Dio 5054. Julius Caesar was accused Green, p. 667 n. 151.

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