They have large compound eyes, two ocelli, and long, flexible antennae.

They can hide in very narrow crevices. The Cockroach Papers: A Compendium of History and Lore, "A giant indoor farm in China is breeding 6 billion cockroaches a year. [6] The scientific name derives from the Latin blatta, "an insect that shuns the light", which in classical Latin was applied not only to cockroaches, but also to mantids. [20] Comparable in size is the Central American giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus. This hypothesis was originally based on similarity of the symbiotic gut flagellates in termites regarded as living fossils and wood-eating cockroaches.
Studies similar to this have been done globally and all the results are similar. [101], Two species of cockroach were used in homeopathic medicine in the 19th century.[102]. Individual species may be restricted to very specific habitats such as leaf litter, bromeliads, the splash zone of waterfalls, or bat caves.

[104][105] Both cockroaches have a restricted distribution and are threatened by habitat loss and rising sea levels.

Common pest cockroaches include the American, German, Oriental, Madeira, and brownbanded. The head points downward and is protected by the enlarged flanges of the thorax. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world. [26][27], The abdomen has ten segments, each with a pair of spiracles for respiration. [62] Research conducted in 2014 suggests that humans fear cockroaches the most, even more than mosquitoes, due to an evolutionary aversion. The world's heaviest cockroach is the Australian giant burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros, which can reach 9 centimetres (3 1⁄2 in) in length and weigh more than 30 grams (1 oz). Some species are capable of remaining active for a month without food and are able to survive on limited resources, such as the glue from the back of postage stamps. The current catalogue of world cockroach species uses the name Blattodea for the group. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives (Blattoptera) and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

Cockroaches are very fast for their size and can run up to three miles in an hour. A cockroach can live for a week without its head and can hold its breath for 40 minutes. Furthermore, in the presence of a potential mate, some cockroaches tap the substrate in a rhythmic, repetitive manner. [34] The cockroach is a convenient insect to study as it is large and simple to raise in a laboratory environment. A cockroach's cells divide only once each time it molts, which is weekly at most in a juvenile roach. In 2005, the role of one of these proteins, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), was isolated and found to be a key mediator in the circadian rhythms of the cockroach. Other species of cockroaches, however, can produce far more eggs; in some cases a female needs to be impregnated only once to be able to lay eggs for the rest of her life. Some species of cockroach can live for up to a month without food, so just because no cockroaches are visible in a home does not mean that they are not there. [108], Lafcadio Hearn (1850–1904) asserted that "For tetanus cockroach tea is given. [72], On rare occasion cockroaches can crawl into human ears, causing pain and hearing loss. [25], Cockroaches have incomplete metamorphosis, meaning that the nymphs are generally similar to the adults, except for undeveloped wings and genitalia. [53] All species studied so far carry the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont bacterium Blattabacterium, with the exception of Nocticola australiensise, an Australian cave-dwelling species without eyes, pigment or wings, which recent genetic studies indicate is a very primitive cockroach. [24] The spines on the legs were earlier considered to be sensory, but observations of the insect's gait on sand and wire meshes have demonstrated that they help in locomotion on difficult terrain. [56], While cockroaches do not have lungs as do vertebrates, and can continue to respire if their heads are removed, in some very large species, the body musculature may contract rhythmically to forcibly move air in and out of the spiracles; this may be considered a form of breathing. Only 600 Delosia ornata adults and 300 nymphs are known to exist, and these are threatened by a hotel development.
[48], Several Australian species practice acoustic and vibration behavior as an aspect of courtship.

Virgil named the cockroach "Lucifuga" ("one that avoids light"). [33], Cockroaches are social insects; a large number of species are either gregarious or inclined to aggregate, and a slightly smaller number exhibit parental care. [115][116] In a 1750–1752 journal, Peter Osbeck noted that cockroaches were frequently seen and found their way to the bakeries, after the sailing ship Gothenburg ran aground and was destroyed by rocks. [50] Many species of cockroach harbor in their gut symbiotic protozoans and bacteria which are able to digest cellulose. The head is bent downward, and the mouthparts point backward instead of forward or downward as is the case in most other insects. When a sufficient number of individuals (a "quorum") exploits a food source, this signals to newcomer cockroaches that they should stay there longer rather than leave for elsewhere. Privacy Policy. The cockroach is characterized by a flattened oval body, long threadlike antennae, and a shining black or brown leathery integument. [25], The female usually attaches the egg case to a substrate, inserts it into a suitably protective crevice, or carries it about until just before the eggs hatch. [35], Cockroaches appear to use just two pieces of information to decide where to go, namely how dark it is and how many other cockroaches there are. AnaplectidaeBlaberidaeBlattidaeCorydiidaeCryptocercidaeEctobiidaeLamproblattidaeNocticolidaeTryonicidae. (*2*)Terrestrial hiding adaptations in Cockroach: (1) For hiding, Its body is of dark chocolate colour.It hides in dark places like drains,crevices and under furniture. [60], It is popularly suggested that cockroaches will "inherit the earth" if humanity destroys itself in a nuclear war. Read Here. The mouthparts are on the underside of the head and include generalized chewing mandibles, salivary glands and various touch and taste receptors. The wasp clips the antennae with its mandibles and drinks some hemolymph before dragging the prey to a burrow, where an egg (rarely two) is laid on it. [93][94] Whereas household pest cockroaches may carry bacteria and viruses, cockroaches bred under laboratory conditions can be used to prepare nutritious food. [25] Development from eggs to adults takes three to four months. [111] Whilst the hissing cockroaches may be the most commonly kept species, there are many species that are kept by cockroach enthusiasts; there is even a specialist society: the Blattodea Culture Group (BCG), which was a thriving organisation for about 15 years although now appears to be dormant. Madonna has famously quoted, "I am a survivor. In the former Soviet Union, cockroach populations have been declining at an alarming rate; this may be exaggerated, or the phenomenon may be temporary or cyclic. Some species can even withstand freezing temperatures. Some live in arid regions and have developed mechanisms to survive without access to water sources. She drops the capsule prior to hatching, though live births do occur in rare instances.

[28] 450 species are found in Australia. Currently, 4,600 species and over 460 genera are described worldwide. Life Cycle and Reproductive Behavior [79] Poisoned bait containing hydramethylnon or fipronil, and boric acid powder is effective on adults.

[31][32], Cockroaches occupy a wide range of habitats. Their transient white stage while hatching and later while molting has led to claims of albino cockroaches. Males have an aedeagus through which they secrete sperm during copulation and females have spermatheca for storing sperm and an ovipositor through which the ootheca are laid. In many species, these symbionts may be essential if the insect is to utilize cellulose; however, some species secrete cellulase in their saliva, and the wood-eating cockroach, Panesthia cribrata, is able to survive indefinitely on a diet of crystallized cellulose while being free of microorganisms.

[112] The BCG provided a source of literature for people interested in rearing cockroaches which was otherwise limited to either scientific papers, or general insect books, or books covering a variety of exotic pets; in the absence of an inclusive book one member published Introduction to Rearing Cockroaches which still appears to be the only book dedicated to rearing cockroaches. Nymphs undergo gradual metamorphosis-that is, they grow and mature in stages, each separated by a molt of the exoskeleton. A cockroach can live for a week without its head and can hold its breath for 40 minutes.

: a cockroach can live without its head", "Cockroaches: The insect we are programmed to fear", "Bacterial load of cockroaches in relation to urban environment", "Cockroach Infestation in Some Hospitals in Trabzon, Turkey", "Experience: A cockroach got stuck in my ear", "Doctors Pull Cockroach From Australian Man's Ear", "Doctor pulls 2cm long cockroach from Hendrik Helmer's ear", "Best Home Remedies To Kill And Control Cockroaches – Baking Soda", "Best Home Remedies To Kill And Control Cockroaches – Catnip", "On the morphology of the juvenile stages of Ampulex compressa (Fabricius 1781) (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)", "The preimaginal stages of the ensign wasp Evania appendigaster (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae), a cockroach egg predator",, "Cockroaches could soon be almost impossible to kill with pesticides", Entertaining with Insects: Or, The Original Guide to Insect Cookery, How to eat a cockroach: a Telegraph guide.

About five species are well known as pests. Others live in the forest canopy where they may be one of the main types of invertebrate present. [119], This article is about the insect.

[25], Female Periplaneta fuliginosa with ootheca, Cockroaches are among the hardiest insects. This makes it suitable both for research and for school and undergraduate biology studies. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living Neopteran insects. [44][45], The gregarious German and American cockroaches have elaborate social structure, chemical signalling, and "social herd" characteristics. The method works well with the American cockroach, but less so with the German cockroach. Some species are capable of surviving temperatures of −122 °C (−188 °F) by manufacturing an antifreeze made out of glycerol. The cockroach families Corydiidae and Ectobiidae were previously known as the Polyphagidae and Blattellidae.

Many tropical species prefer even warmer environments.


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